The FDA concludes that Kratom is an opioid, and…

Although I am in agreement with the FDA’s science, it does not exist in a vacuum. When determining the risk of using a drug or chemical it is essential to also consider the risk of not using it. This is why I “changed my mind” about kratom. Kratom did not change, but the situation did. The risk of not having kratom available, despite all its liabilities, may be greater than whatever harm the drug may cause.

This is, of course, due to anti-scientific and irrational state and federal policies that fail to recognize that pain patient addiction is rare, so the ongoing crackdown on opioid prescribing is going to do little more than harm pain patients, who will either suffer, or be forced turn to street heroin (which now means fentanyl), not for any addiction, but to make their lives manageable – as good an example of the consequences of an atrocious policy as you’ll ever see … [as for the current science of the FDA] … The magnitude of the effect of any drug is dependent on its dose and binding affinity. Without knowing both, it is impossible to determine the pharmacological effect of a given drug. But, according to Gottlieb, one of these two parameters can be determined computationally: We found that kratom has a strong bind to mu-opioid receptors, comparable to scheduled opioid drugs…The computational model also predicted that some of the kratom compounds may bind to the receptors in the brain that may contribute to stress responses that impact neurologic and cardiovascular function. Binding data determines how tightly a drug will “stick” to its target, but not whether it will ever arrive at it. Chemical compounds, including drugs, do not get a free ride to the blood, let alone the brain. No matter how potent any drug may be it can be 1) extensively metabolized, 2) not be absorbed, or 3) even if it reaches the blood may not reach the brain. It is trickier to predict these parameters Until binding data that determines cardiovascular or other effects, the statement about this is speculative.

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The FDA concludes that Kratom is an opioid, and…
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The whole fungus : good

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